Actovegin is a deproteinized hemodialysate obtained from calf blood. It is a mixture of compounds of both inorganic (potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium) and organic (acetate, lactate, amino acids, nucleosides) origin naturally occurring in the body. The exact pharmacokinetics of the drug remains undefined, because of its multicomponent composition.
Actovegin prevents hypoxia-related cellular damage by increasing oxygen uptake by the tissues. An increased amount of oxygen in the tissues does stimulate the synthesis of high-energy phosphates. It does stimulate the process of oxidative phosphorylation, the synthesis of carbohydrates and proteins, and the elimination of anaerobic glycolysis products.
The antioxidant activity of Actovegin can be explained by the presence of superoxide dismutase in its composition. Superoxide dismutase is an important endogenous antioxidant defense which prevents damage to tissues.
According to studies, the drug is able to inhibit caspase-induced apoptosis, increase the number of synaptic connections and reduce oxidative stress in neurons.
Indications for use are:
- Cerebrovascular diseases, including ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injuries.
- Peripheral vascular diseases.
- Healing of ulcers, burns, decubitus ulcers and other injuries.
- Prophylaxis of skin and mucous membrane lesions during radiation therapy.
Actovegin is available in various forms: pills, vials for IM/IV injections, and gel for topical administration.
The oral dosage is 1-2 pills three times a day before a meal. The length of the treatment course if 4-6 weeks.
The dosage for parenteral administration depends on the severity of the symptoms. Because of the possible allergic reactions, it is recommended to test the tolerability to the drug before injection.
- The dosage for injury recovery is 10ml intravenous or 5ml intramuscular 3-4 times a week.
- The dosage for the treatment of ischemic stroke is 20-50ml of Actovegin in 200-300ml of solution intravenously daily for one week, and then 10-20ml daily for two weeks.
Contraindications for use of injectable version are hypersensitivity to the drug, decompensated heart failure, pulmonary edema, oliguria, anuresis, edema.
For the oral form, the only contraindication is hypersensitivity.
Possible side effect is allergic reactions.